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Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs

1995 Nobel Peace Prize


MAIN POINTS OF A POSSIBLE AGREED FRAMEWORK BETWEEN THE I.R. OF IRAN, THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA, FRANCE, GERMANY, RUSSIA, THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE UNITED STATES

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  1. 1.     All the parties reiterate the validity of the NPT in all its parts. Particularly the principle of non- proliferation, the principle of nuclear disarmament and the principle of cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. All parties reaffirm the right of State Parties to the NPT to develop peaceful nuclear activities, in keeping with the non-proliferation and safeguards principles of the NPT. In this framework it is understood that the I.R. of Iran has the right to develop and use techniques for uranium enrichment and other nuclear technologies for peaceful purposes as well has its responsibilities in promoting the goals of the NPT and in respecting all its obligations.

     

    2.     The I.R. of Iran assures that the nuclear activities inside Iran are aimed exclusively at the exploitation of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.  The other parties take notice of this declaration by the I.R. of Iran and welcome it.

     

     

    3.     All the parties affirm that the IAEA is the competent authority responsible for verifying and assuring, in accordance with the Statute of IAEA and the IAEA safeguards system, the compliance with the NPT safeguards agreements of NPT State Parties, undertaken in fulfillment of their obligations under article III, paragraph 1, of the NPT to verify the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. All the parties reaffirm that nothing should be done to undermine the authority of IAEA in this regard.

     

    4.     All parties agree that the IAEA Model Additional Protocol of 1997 is a fundamental tool to promote the effectiveness and efficiency of IAEA safeguards and thus to provide assurance of absence of undeclared nuclear activities and material. The parties acknowledge that the I.R. of Iran has signed an additional protocol in 2003. Pending ratification by the Majlis of the I.R of Iran, the Government of Iran is committing itself to implement the additional protocol and to facilitate the ratification by the Majlis as part of a final agreement with the other countries that will include the removal of all the sanctions and the normalization of relations.  

     

    5.     According to what stated by the I.R. of Iran, the nuclear activities of the I.R. of Iran are exclusively aimed at the production of electricity in nuclear power plants, at producing isotopes for medical purposes and at developing scientific research.  The parties acknowledge the positive role of international cooperation in the field of nuclear activities and will work for creating in the future an environment where this international cooperation will be possible among all the parties of this agreed framework.

     

    6.     The parties agree to cooperate in guaranteeing the safety and security and the integrity of the nuclear facilities inside the I.R. of Iran.

     

    7.     The parties agree to cooperate in the field of preventing illegal nuclear activities, theft of nuclear material and in developing jointly measures to strengthen the protection of nuclear material through the implementation of the IAEA Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) as amended, of the relevant Resolutions of the UN and other similar measures and in the spirit of strengthening the NPT. The parties also agree to facilitate the exchange of scientists and other technical personnel in order to cooperate more effectively in the fight against nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism and to work to remove the obstacles that may prevent such exchange.

     

    8.     The I.R. of Iran agrees to extend its full cooperation to the IAEA, by furnishing all the necessary                information about the totality of its nuclear activities strictly following the existing safeguards agreement between the I.R. of Iran and the IAEA (INFCIRC/214 of 13 December 1974) and related safeguards strengthening measures [(such as the implementation of modified Code 3.1 of the Subsidiary Arrangements General Part to Iran’s Safeguards Agreement on the early provision of design information)] and respecting the confidence building measures as specified below.

     

    9.     This agreed framework has to be respected in full by all parties. A violation of any of its parts will render the entire agreed framework null and void and the country responsible for the violation will be held responsible in front of the international community.

     

    10.  As confidence building measures and in order to progress towards a final agreement, the parties agree to the immediate steps described below. All the parties will suspend for a period of 1 year [x months][1] all the sanctions against the I.R. of Iran whose full implementation took effect or was scheduled to take effect in the calendar year 2012 or afterwards[2][3].  If the suspension of the above sanctions will begin at a certain date, the I.R. of Iran will suspend at the same date and for the same period of time, the enrichment of Uranium above the 5% limit, the deployment of new centrifuges in the Fordow facility, the construction of new enrichment facilities. Moreover the I.R. of Iran will refrain indefinitely from developing any reprocessing of plutonium. Furthermore the I.R. of Iran will agree to swap the 20% enriched Uranium it has already produced and that has not been transformed into fuel for research reactors, with an equivalent amount of ready- made fuel for its research reactors, as soon as this fuel will be available.

     

    11.  Furthermore with immediate effects the parties of this agreed framework agree to drop all the limitations that affect the availability of spare parts and fuel for civilian aircrafts inside the I.R. of Iran.

     

    12.  Finally, in order to dispel the concern of possible military dimensions of the Iranian nuclear activities, the I.R. of Iran will agree with the IAEA on modalities for managed access during a specified period of up to 6 months to the non nuclear-sites and facilities not covered by the IAEA safeguards, as determined jointly by the IAEA and the I.R. of Iran. This commitment on the side of the I.R. of Iran will entry into force on the same date and for the same period of time as specified in art. 10 of the present agreement. It is understood that the IAEA will provide strict assurances to the I.R. of Iran on maintaining confidentiality regarding all information about Iran nuclear and non-nuclear activities[4].

     

    13.  The parties agree to work for a final solution of the present controversy about the nuclear activities of the I.R. of Iran that will include inter alia the total elimination of the sanctions against the I.R. of Iran and the full monitoring of all the nuclear activities in Iran by the IAEA, including the implementation of a model additional protocol.  

     



    [1] Square brackets denote alternative provisions or optional provisions.

    [2] It will be equivalent to a suspension of say 240 days, the waiving of the implementation of a certain law mandating sanctions for two consecutive periods of 120 days. After the first period of 120 days, the authority that has issued the waiver may request the verification of the implementation status of the present agreed framework.

    [3] The sanctions that are referred to include, among others, the US Public Law n. 112-081 of Dec 31st  2011 (H.R 1540) and the E.U. Council Decision 2012/35/CFSP ( January 23rd, 2012 ) and E.U. Council regulations no 267/2012 of March, 23rd, 2012.

    [4] Art. 12 can include more details about the modalities of IAEA inspections to some specified sites not covered by IAEA safeguards.

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