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Recent History

  Hans Bethe Letter 1995
  Hiroshima Declaration 1995
  Dagomys Declaration 1988

IN recent years, Pugwash has undertaken some research projects requiring a more sustained organizational effort than a single meeting or even a series of meetings. For instance:

   In 1991 PUGWASH produced an American-European-Soviet book on verification (Verification: Monitoring Disarmament, edited by F. Calogero, M. Goldberger and S.P. Kapitza; Westview Press, 1991 [in English]; Mir, 1991 [in Russian]); its chapters, covering most verification issues, were all co-authored by high-caliber experts from the "West" and the "East" (probably the first book in the world, dealing with a sensitive security issue, to have this remarkable feature).

   In 1993, another project resulted in the publication of a multi-authored Pugwash Monograph (A Nuclear-Weapon-Free World: Desirable? Feasible?, edited by J. Rotblat, J. Steinberger and B. Udgaonkar; Westview Press, 1993), which has been instrumental in opening a serious debate about the prospect of a complete elimination of nuclear weaponry. This book has also been published in several other languages (Russian, French, Chinese, Arabic, Swedish, Japanese, and Spanish).

   A project on Education for World Citizenship resulted in the publication of a Pugwash Monograph (World Citizenship: Allegiance to Humanity, Joseph Rotblat, ed., Macmillan Press Ltd., 1997, 234 pp.; published in the USA by St. Martin's Press).

   A project on the "Conversion of Military Research & Development to Civilian Uses," with particular attention to the weapons laboratories in nuclear-weapon countries, has produced the book, Conversion of Military R&D, ed. J. Reppy, Macmillan Press, 1998, 296pp., published in the USA by St. Martin's Press.

   A Report on the "Conversion of Military Research & Development in the former Soviet Republics -- the Future of their Nuclear Weapon Complex" was produced in 1993 and updated in 1994; another updated version has appeared in 1995, as a SIPRI book: M. De Andreis and F. Calogero, The Soviet Nuclear Weapon Legacy, SIPRI Research Report no. 10, Oxford University Press, 1995.

DESPITE its low-profile nature, the Pugwash Conferences have received many international awards: in 1987, they were awarded the Olympia Prize by the Onassis Foundation (US$ 100,000, shared with the Archaeological Society of Greece), and the Feltrinelli Prize by the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Lit. 100,000,000 -- awarded every four years for work having a high moral and humanitarian value). This money was placed in the International Pugwash Foundation (located in Geneva, and on whose Administrative Board both Robert McNamara, ex-U.S. Secretary of Defense and later President of the World Bank, and Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan take part), which was set up with the goal (still far off) of raising US$ 5,000,000 as a financial base. In 1989, UNESCO awarded to the Pugwash Conferences the Einstein Gold Medal. In 1992, The Albert Einstein Peace Prize (US$ 50,000) was awarded to Hans Bethe and Joseph Rotblat, who donated his half to the Pugwash Foundation.

In 1995 the Nobel Peace Prize (which entails a monetary award of 7,200,000 SEK, approximately one million US$) was assigned, in two equal parts, to Joseph Rotblat, President of Pugwash, and to the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. Joseph Rotblat has donated his half of the Prize to Pugwash (one-third to International Pugwash, one-third to British Pugwash, and one-third to a special Pugwash Trust. The funds that have thus come to International Pugwash (two-thirds of the Nobel Peace Prize monies) have all gone to the Pugwash Foundation.

Read the communique (Friday, October 13, 1995) which announced the award of the Nobel Peace Prize.

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